How should IV fluids be used and water restricted in patients with hyponatremia?

Updated: Jun 17, 2019
  • Author: Eric E Simon, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

Administer isotonic saline to patients who are hypovolemic to replace the contracted intravascular volume. Patients with hypovolemia secondary to diuretics may also need potassium repletion, which, like sodium, is osmotically active.

Treat patients who are hypervolemic with salt and fluid restriction, plus loop diuretics, and correction of the underlying condition. The use of a V2 receptor antagonist may be considered.

For euvolemic, asymptomatic hyponatremic patients, free water restriction (< 1 L/day) is generally the treatment of choice. There is no role for hypertonic saline in these patients.

When treating patients with overtly symptomatic hyponatremia (eg, seizures, severe neurologic deficits), hypertonic (3%) saline should be used.


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