How is calcium homeostasis maintained?

Updated: Jul 30, 2021
  • Author: Manish Suneja, MD, FASN, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Homeostasis is maintained by an extracellular-to-intracellular gradient, which is largely due to abundant high-energy phosphates intracellularly. Intracellular calcium regulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)–mediated messenger systems and most cell organelle functions. Ion pumps control levels. Extracellular calcium levels are maintained at 8.7-10.4 mg/dL. Variations depend on serum pH, protein and anion levels, and calcium-regulating hormone function.

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