What is the role of overproduction of urate in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia?

Updated: Aug 31, 2018
  • Author: James W Lohr, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

Overproduction accounts for only a minority of patients presenting with hyperuricemia. The causes for hyperuricemia in overproducers may be either exogenous (diet rich in purines) or endogenous (increased purine nucleotide breakdown). A small percentage of overproducers have enzymatic defects that account for their hyperuricemia. These include a complete deficiency of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) as in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, partial deficiency of HGPRT (Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome), and increased production of 5-phospho-alpha-d-ribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) activity. Accelerated purine degradation can result from rapid cell proliferation and turnover (blast crisis of leukemias) or from cell death (rhabdomyolysis, cytotoxic therapy). Glycogenoses types III, IV, and VII can result in hyperuricemia from excessive degradation of skeletal muscle ATP.


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