When should a multidrug approach be considered in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure)?

Updated: Feb 22, 2019
  • Author: Matthew R Alexander, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Answer

Over 50% of patients with hypertension will require more than one drug for blood pressure control. [7] In stage 1 hypertension, a single agent is generally sufficient to reduce BP, whereas in stage 2, a multidrug approach may be needed. Initiation of 2 antihypertensive agents, either as 2 separate prescriptions or as a fixed-dose combination, should also be considered when BP is more than 20 mm Hg above the systolic goal (or 10 mm Hg above the diastolic goal). [5]

Several situations demand the addition of a second drug, because 2 drugs may be used at lower doses to avoid the adverse effects that may occur with higher doses of a single agent. Diuretics generally potentiate the effects of other antihypertensive drugs by minimizing volume expansion. Specifically, the use of a thiazide diuretic in conjunction with a beta-blocker or an ACEI has an additive effect, controlling BP in up to 85% of patients.

The ALTITUDE trial was halted because it was shown that aliskiren can cause adverse events—nonfatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension—when used in combination with an ACEI or an ARB in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment who are at high risk of cardiovascular and renal events.


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