How does physical activity and/or weight loss affect blood pressure (BP)?

Updated: Feb 22, 2019
  • Author: Matthew R Alexander, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Answer

Up to 60% of all individuals with hypertension are more than 20% overweight. The centripetal fat distribution is associated with insulin resistance and hypertension. Even modest weight loss (5%) can lead to reduction in BP and improved insulin sensitivity. Weight reduction may lower blood pressure by 5-20 mm Hg per 10 kg of weight loss in a patient whose weight is more than 10% of ideal body weight.

Regular aerobic physical activity can facilitate weight loss, decrease BP, and reduce the overall risk of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure may be lowered by 4-9 mm Hg with moderately intense physical activity. [5] These activities include brisk walking for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week. More intense workouts of 20-30 minutes, 3-4 times a week, may also lower BP and have additional health benefits. [5]

Blumenthal et al found that in overweight or obese patients with high BP, adding exercise and weight loss to the DASH diet resulted in even larger reductions in BP and cardiovascular biomarkers of risk. [82] The trial showed that after 4 months, clinic-measured BP was reduced by 16.1/9.9 mm Hg in patients in the DASH-plus-weight management group; by 11.2/7.5 mm Hg in the DASH-alone group; and by 3.4/3.8 mm Hg in a control group eating a usual diet. Compared with DASH alone, DASH plus weight management also resulted in greater improvement in pulse wave velocity, baroreflex sensitivity, and left ventricular mass. [82]

The 2016 and 2017 ADA diabetes standards support increasing physical activity. The recommendations emphasize that exercise is an important part of diabetes management in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, contributing to weight loss, and improving overall well-being. [71, 83]  Moreover, patients with diabetes and severe hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg) at diagnosis or afterward should receive drug therapy along with lifestyle modifications. [71, 83]

In 2018, the Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released their key recommendations, including the following [84, 85] :

  • Regular physical activity minimizes excessive weight gain, helps maintain weight within a healthy range, improves bone health, and prevents obesity, even in children as young as 3-5 years.

  • In pregnant women, physical activity helps reduce excessive weight gain in pregnancy and helps reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes and postpartum depression.

  • Regular physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive function and to reduce the risk of dementia; falls and fall-related injuries; and cancers of the breast, esophagus, colon, bladder, lung, endometrium, kidney, and stomach. It also helps retard the progression of osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension.

  • Children aged 3-5 years: Should be physically active throughout the day to enhance growth and development.

  • Children aged 6-17 years: Sixty minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day.

  • Adults: At least 150-300 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, OR 75-150 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, OR an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity; muscle-strengthening activities should be performed on two or more days per week.

  • Older adults: Multicomponent physical activity to include balance training, aerobic activity, and muscle-strengthening activity.

  • Pregnant and postpartum women: At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity weekly.

  • Adults with chronic conditions or disabilities who are able: Follow key guidelines and perform both aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities.


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