How are renal and pulmonary causes of hypertension (high blood pressure) evaluated?

Updated: Feb 22, 2019
  • Author: Matthew R Alexander, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with arterial injection of radiocontrast dye is the criterion standard for the evaluation of renal and pulmonary causes of hypertension, but this modality carries the risk of dye nephropathy and atheroemboli in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Captopril radionuclide scanning imaging technique does not give anatomic detail and is less often used, but this study can provide important information regarding the functionality of renal artery stenosis in the absence of advanced chronic kidney disease.

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