What are the common signs and symptoms of primary hyperaldosteronism (PA)?

Updated: Feb 22, 2019
  • Author: Matthew R Alexander, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Answer

Renal sodium retention, kaliuresis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis are the common manifestations. It should be considered in patients who have an exaggerated hypokalemic response to a thiazide diuretic or who have hypokalemia unprovoked by a diuretic. These patients develop increased intravascular volume, resulting in hypertension. Hypokalemia, however, is present in less than half of patients with PA, and thus the ratio of plasma aldosterone to renin activity should be used for screening of suspected cases. Blood pressure increase may vary from mild hypertension to marked elevation in primary hyperaldosteronism. Patients may have underlying adenoma or hyperplasia of the adrenal gland and rarely have an extra-adrenal source for aldosterone.


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