Which lifestyle modifications decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension (high blood pressure)?

Updated: Feb 22, 2019
  • Author: Matthew R Alexander, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Various strategies to decrease cardiovascular disease risk include the following:

  • Prevention and treatment of obesity: an increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference is associated with an increased risk of developing conditions with high cardiovascular risk, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) [52]

  • Appropriate amounts of aerobic physical activity

  • Diets low in salt, total fat, and cholesterol

  • Adequate dietary intake of potassium, calcium, and magnesium

  • Limited alcohol consumption

  • Avoidance of cigarette smoking

  • Avoidance of the use of illicit drugs, such as cocaine

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