Why are people with diabetes mellitus at higher risk for developing hyperkalemia (high serum potassium level)?

Updated: Apr 09, 2020
  • Author: Eleanor Lederer, MD, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

Patients with diabetes constitute a unique high-risk group for hyperkalemia, in that they develop defects in all aspects of potassium metabolism. [16, 17] The typical healthy diabetic diet often is high in potassium and low in sodium. Diabetic persons frequently have underlying renal disease and often develop hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism (ie, decreased aldosterone secondary to suppressed renin levels), impairing renal excretion of potassium. [20, 21]

Many patients with diabetes are placed on ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy for treatment of hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, exacerbating the defect in potassium excretion. Finally, persons with diabetes have insulin deficiency or resistance to insulin action, limiting their ability to shift potassium intracellularly.


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