What is the role of genetics to the pathophysiology of Goodpasture syndrome (anti–glomerular basement membrane disease) (anti-GBM)?

Updated: Dec 16, 2020
  • Author: Pranay Kathuria, MD, FACP, FASN, FNKF; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Strong evidence exists that genetics play an important role. Patients with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types are more susceptible to disease and may have a worse prognosis.

There is an increased prevalence of HLA-DR15 (previously known as HLA-DR2) and DRB1*03, DRB1*04 and a decreased frequency of DRB1*01 and DRB1*07. [11, 12] Goodpasture disease is strongly associated with the DRB1*1501 and to a lesser extent the DRB1*1502 allele. Although a strong association exists between anti-GBM disease and HLA DRB1*1501, this allele is present in as many as one third of individuals in white populations. It is therefore clear that additional factors, either genetic or environmental, are required for disease expression.

Also of note, HLA-B7 is found more frequently and is associated with more severe anti-GBM nephritis.

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