Which dietary modifications are beneficial in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy?

Updated: Oct 09, 2019
  • Author: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

A meta-analysis examining the effects of dietary protein restriction (0.5-0.85 g/kg/d) in diabetic patients suggested a beneficial effect on the GFR, creatinine clearance, and albuminuria. However, a large, long-term prospective study is needed to establish the safety, efficacy, and compliance with protein restriction in diabetic patients with nephropathy. Limitations include ensuring compliance by patients.

The American Diabetic Association suggests diets of various energy intake (caloric values), depending on the patient. With advancing renal disease, protein restriction of as much as 0.8-1 g/kg/d may retard the progression of nephropathy.

When nephropathy is advanced, the diet should reflect the need for phosphorus and potassium restriction, with the use of phosphate binders.

A meta-analysis from the Cochrane Renal Group revealed that dietary salt reduction significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) in individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. [47] These findings, along with other evidence relating salt intake to BP and albuminuria in hypertensive and normotensive patients, make a strong case for a reduction in salt intake among patients with diabetes. The recommendation for the general population in public health guidelines is less than 5-6 g/d. Dietary salt reduction may help slow progression of kidney disease in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.


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