What is the global prevalence of azotemia?

Updated: Sep 19, 2018
  • Author: Moro O Salifu, MD, MPH, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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In a report from Madrid that evaluated 748 cases of ARF at 13 tertiary hospital centers, the most frequent causes were ATN (45%); prerenal (21%); acute or chronic renal failure, mostly due to ATN and prerenal disease (13%); urinary tract obstruction (10%); glomerulonephritis or vasculitis (4%); acute interstitial nephritis (2%); and atheroemboli (1%). [5]  Etiologies of CKD differ around the world. Diabetic nephropathy as a cause of CKD is on the rise in developed and developing countries.

A study of the epidemiology of community-acquired AKI in eastern India in 1983–95 versus 1996–2008 found that the incidence rate rose from 1.95 to 4.14 per 1000 hospital admissions. In addition, the etiology of AKI shifted: the incidences of obstetrical, surgical, and diarrheal AKI decreased significantly, whereas those of AKI associated with malaria, sepsis, nephrotoxic drugs, and liver disease increased. [6]

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