What causes azotemia?

Updated: Sep 19, 2018
  • Author: Moro O Salifu, MD, MPH, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

Prerenal azotemia occurs as a consequence of impaired renal blood flow or decreased perfusion resulting from decreased blood volume, decreased cardiac output (congestive heart failure), decreased systemic vascular resistance, decreased effective arterial volume from sepsis or hepatorenal syndrome, [3] or renal artery abnormalities. It may be superimposed on a background of chronic renal failure. Iatrogenic factors, such as excessive diuresis and treatment with ACE inhibitors, should be ruled out.

Intrarenal azotemia occurs as a result of injury to the glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, or small vessels. It may be acute oliguric, acute nonoliguric, or chronic. Systemic disease, nocturia, proteinuria, loss of urinary concentrating ability (low urine specific gravity), anemia, and hypocalcemia are suggestive of chronic intrarenal azotemia.

Postrenal azotemia occurs when an obstruction to urine flow is present. It is observed in bilateral ureteral obstruction from tumors or stones, retroperitoneal fibrosis, neurogenic bladder, and bladder neck obstruction from prostatic hypertrophy or carcinoma and posterior urethral valves. It may be superimposed on a background of chronic renal failure.


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