What is the pathophysiology of joint destruction in septic arthritis?

Updated: Sep 19, 2017
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

The major consequence of bacterial invasion is damage to articular cartilage. This may be due to the particular organism's pathologic properties, such as the chondrocyte proteases of S aureus, as well as to the host's polymorphonuclear leukocytes response. The cells stimulate synthesis of cytokines and other inflammatory products, resulting in the hydrolysis of essential collagen and proteoglycans. Infection with N gonorrhoeae induces a relatively mild influx of white blood cells (WBCs) into the joint, explaining, in part, the minimal joint destruction observed with infection with this organism relative to destruction associated with S aureus infection.

As the destructive process continues, pannus formation begins, and cartilage erosion occurs at the lateral margins of the joint. Large effusions, which can occur in infections of the hip joint, impair the blood supply and result in aseptic necrosis of bone. These destructive processes are well advanced as early as 3 days into the course of untreated infection.


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