What are the risk factors for Blastomyces dermatitidis (B dermatitidis) infection and how likely is it to cause meningitis?

Updated: Jul 16, 2019
  • Author: Rodrigo Hasbun, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus that has been reported to be endemic in North America (eg, in the Mississippi and Ohio River basins). It has also been isolated from parts of Central America, South America, the Middle East, and India. Its natural habitat is not well defined. Soil that is rich in decaying matter and environments around riverbanks and waterways have been demonstrated to harbor B dermatitidis during outbreaks and are thought to be risk factors for acquiring the infection.

Inhalation of the conidia establishes a pulmonary infection. Dissemination may occur in certain individuals, including those with underlying immune deficiency (eg, from HIV or pharmaceutical agents) and extremes of age, and may involve the skin, bones and joints, genitourinary tract, and CNS. Involvement of the CNS occurs in fewer than 5% of cases.


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