What is the role of Cryptococcus neoformans (C neoformans) in the development of meningitis?

Updated: Jul 16, 2019
  • Author: Rodrigo Hasbun, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated, yeastlike fungus that is ubiquitous. It has been found in high concentrations in aged pigeon droppings and pigeon nesting places. The 4 serotypes are designated A through D, with the A serotype causing most human infections. Onset of cryptococcal meningitis may be acute, especially among patients with AIDS.

Numerous cases occur in healthy hosts (eg, persons with no known T-cell defect); however, approximately 50-80% of cases occur in immunocompromised hosts. At particular risk are individuals with defects of T-cell–mediated immunity, such as persons with AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and other patients who use steroids, cyclosporine, and other immunosuppressants. Cryptococcal meningitis has also been reported in patients with idiopathic CD-4 lymphopenia, Hodgkin disease, sarcoidosis, and cirrhosis.

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