When should Toscana virus (TOSV) meningitis or encephalitis be suspected?

Updated: Jul 16, 2019
  • Author: Rodrigo Hasbun, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Toscana virus meningitis or encephalitis should be considered in travelers returning from the a Mediterranean country (eg, Italy, Spain, or Greece) during the summer. Toscana viruses are transmitted by the bite of a sandfly. Toscana virus infection can be diagnosed by performing paired serologies and CSF PCR, which in the United States is available only through the CDC. [9]

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