What are risk factors for developing meningitis caused by gram-negative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae)?

Updated: Jul 16, 2019
  • Author: Rodrigo Hasbun, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Gram-negative bacilli can cause meningitis in certain groups of patients. E coli is a common agent of meningitis among neonates. Other predisposing risk factors for meningitis associated with gram-negative bacilli include the following:

  • Neurosurgical procedures or intracranial manipulation

  • Old age

  • Immunosuppression

  • High-grade gram-negative bacillary bacteremia

  • Disseminated strongyloidiasis

Disseminated strongyloidiasis has been reported as a classic cause of gram-negative bacillary bacteremia, as a result of the translocation of gut microflora with the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae during hyperinfection syndrome.


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