Which medications in the drug class Anti-Infectives are used in the treatment of Acute Sinusitis?

Updated: Mar 01, 2018
  • Author: Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Anti-Infectives

Anti-infectives such as vancomycin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim are effective against some types of bacteria that have become resistant to other antibiotics.

Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Sulfatrim Pediatric)

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a first-line agent with more convenient dosing. It inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting synthesis of dihydrofolic acid.

Vancomycin

Vancomycin is a potent antibiotic directed against gram-positive organisms and active against Enterococcus species (useful in septicemia and skin structure infections; Enterococcus is very rare in sinusitis). Vancomycin is indicated for patients who cannot receive or have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or who have infections with resistant staphylococci.

Metronidazole (Flagyl, Metro)

Metronidazole is an imidazole ring-based antibiotic that is active against various anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is used in combination with other antimicrobial agents (except C difficile enterocolitis).

Clindamycin (Cleocin)

Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by 7(S)-chloro-substitution of 7(R)-hydroxyl group of parent compound lincomycin. It inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest. Clindamycin widely distributes in the body without penetration of the CNS. It is protein bound and is excreted by the liver and kidneys.


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