What is the role of S pneumoniae in the etiology of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (sinus infection)?

Updated: Mar 01, 2018
  • Author: Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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S pneumoniae are gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic cocci that account for 20-43% of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis cases in adults. The rise of antimicrobial resistance in S pneumoniae is a major concern.

A 1998 surveillance study of respiratory tract isolates estimated that 12.3% of S pneumoniae isolates obtained from the paranasal sinuses had intermediate resistance to penicillin; 37.4% were penicillin-resistant. The paranasal sinuses represented the anatomic location with the highest resistance rate. [21] Resistance to macrolide, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline was more common in isolates with intermediate penicillin resistance and those that were penicillin-resistant.

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