Which pathogens cause prostatitis?

Updated: Aug 27, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Gram-negative uropathogens (eg, Enterobacteriaceae, such as E coli, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas) are acknowledged pathogens of the prostate. Probable pathogens include Enterococcus and S aureus, and possible pathogens include coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Chlamydia, Ureaplasma, anaerobes, Candida, and Trichomonas. Acknowledged nonpathogens of the prostate include diphtheroids, lactobacilli, and Corynebacterium. Bacterial pathogens cannot be demonstrated in cases of nonbacterial prostatitis.

Viruses and cell wall–deficient bacteria have a controversial association with prostatitis. Rare cases have been reported from Clostridia and Burkholderia (formerly Pseudomonas) pseudomallei (the causative agent of melioidosis).

Unusual pathogens reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) include cytomegalovirus (CMV) and some fungi (Aspergillus, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus). The prostate is a known reservoir for Cryptococcus neoformans.


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