What are the risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) in males?

Updated: Jan 02, 2020
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Risk factors for UTI and bacterial causes of prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, and urethritis are discussed in this section.

Risk factors

Obstruction from any cause is a major risk factor for the development of UTI, as are instrumentation of the urinary tract, catheterization, and urologic surgery.

In males older than 50 years, prostatic hypertrophy with partial obstruction is the main contributor to the increase in UTI. Risk factors observed more commonly in elderly or institutionalized males include cognitive impairment, fecal or urinary incontinence, and the use of catheters.

Catheter-associated bacteriuria risk factors include female sex, significant comorbid conditions (especially diabetes mellitus), age older than 50 years, lack of systemic antibiotic(s), and a serum creatinine level greater than 2mg/dL.

Risk factors for bacteremia secondary to catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) are male sex, UTI caused by Serratia marcescens, older age, underlying urologic disease, and an indwelling catheter.

In young men, risk factors for acute cystitis include homosexual behavior with anal intercourse, intercourse with a female infected or colonized with a uropathogen, lack of circumcision, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with CD4 counts of 200/μL or less.

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