Is the acetone-inactivated parenteral vaccine used in the prevention of typhoid fever (enteric fever) available to the general public?

Updated: Aug 19, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Acetone-inactivated parenteral vaccine is currently available only to members of the US Armed Forces. Efficacy rates for this vaccine range from 75%-94%. Booster doses should be administered every 3 years if continued or renewed exposure is expected.

The parenteral heat-phenol–inactivated vaccine (Wyeth-Ayerst) has been discontinued.

No information has been reported concerning the use of one vaccine as a booster after primary vaccination with a different vaccine. However, using either the series of 4 doses of Ty21a or 1 dose of ViCPS for persons previously vaccinated with parenteral vaccine is a reasonable alternative to administration of a booster dose of parenteral inactivated vaccine.

A more effective vaccine is on the horizon. Vi polysaccharide-tetanus typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) is a combination of the 1 polysaccharide antigen and tetanus toxoid. It appears to be more immunogenic and longer acting other typhoid vaccines. [75]

Targeted use of vaccines in areas of the world with high rates of typhoid fever and/or resistant Salmonella isolates makes economic sense in reducing the disease burden and associated costs. [76]


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