Is routine vaccination against typhoid fever (enteric fever) recommended in the US?

Updated: Aug 19, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

In endemic areas, mass immunization with typhoid vaccines at regular intervals considerably reduces the incidence of infections.

Routine typhoid vaccination is not recommended in the United States but is indicated for travelers to endemic areas, persons with intimate exposure to a documented S typhi carrier (eg, household contacts of chronic carriers, defined as persons with excretion of S t yphi in urine or stool ≥1 year), and microbiology laboratory personnel who frequently work with S typhi. In their 2015 recommendations, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in the US recommends that travelers to countries with a high prevalence of typhoid and recognized risk for exposure to S typhi should be vaccinated against typhoid, even if they are staying with friends or relatives or only traveling for a short time. [70]

Vaccines are not approved for use in children younger than 2 years. The efficacy of typhoid fever vaccinations against paratyphi serovars has not been firmly established, but is markedly less than their efficacy against typhi. [71]


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