What is the global prevalence of typhoid fever (enteric fever)?

Updated: Aug 19, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Typhoid fever occurs worldwide, primarily in developing nations whose sanitary conditions are poor. Typhoid fever is endemic in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Oceania, but 80% of cases come from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, or Vietnam. [24] Within those countries, typhoid fever is most common in underdeveloped areas. Typhoid fever infects roughly 21.6 million people (incidence of 3.6 per 1,000 population) and kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. [25]

In the United States, most cases of typhoid fever arise in international travelers. The average yearly incidence of typhoid fever per million travelers from 1999-2006 by county or region of departure was as follows: [23]

  • Western Hemisphere outside Canada/United States - 1.3

  • Africa - 7.6

  • Asia - 10.5

  • India - 89 (122 in 2006)

  • Total (for all countries except Canada/United States) - 2.2


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