Which medications in the drug class Antiprotozoal Agents are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Updated: Mar 08, 2019
  • Author: Murat Hökelek, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Antiprotozoal Agents

Protozoal infections occur throughout the world and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some regions. Immunocompromised patients are especially at risk. Primary immunodeficiency is rare, whereas secondary deficiency is more common. Immunosuppressive therapy, cancer and its treatment, HIV infection, and splenectomy may increase vulnerability to infection. Infectious risk is proportional to neutropenia duration and severity. Protozoal infections are typically more severe in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients.

Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)

This is a folic acid antagonist that selectively inhibits plasmodial dihydrofolate reductase. Pyrimethamine is highly selective against plasmodia and T gondii. A synergistic effect occurs when it is used conjointly with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis. Folinic acid should be given to all patients to prevent hematologic toxicity of pyrimethamine

Atovaquone (Mepron)

Atovaquone is a hydroxynaphthoquinone that inhibits the mitochondrial electron transport chain by competing with ubiquinone at the ubiquinone-cytochrome-c-reductase region (complex III). Inhibition of electron transport by atovaquone results in inhibition of nucleic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in parasites.


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