How common is retinochoroiditis as a manifestation of toxoplasmosis?

Updated: Mar 08, 2019
  • Author: Murat Hökelek, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Retinochoroiditis is a relatively common manifestation of T gondii infection. Ocular toxoplasmosis occurs when cysts deposited in or near the retina become active, producing tachyzoites. Focal necrotizing retinitis is the characteristic lesion, but retinal scars from prior reactivation are typically present. Presentation usually involves eye pain and decreased visual acuity. Adults who acquired disease in infancy usually present with bilateral eye involvement. Adults with acute infection generally present with unilateral ocular involvement. [37, 38, 36, 39]

Depending on the location and severity of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, infection can result in permanent retinal scarring and loss of visual acuity. Recurrent episodes are common, resulting in multiple areas of retinal scarring and functional loss. (See the images below.)

Ophthalmic toxoplasmosis. Used with permission of Ophthalmic toxoplasmosis. Used with permission of Anton Drew, ophthalmic photographer, Adelaide, South Australia.
Macular scar secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis Macular scar secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis. Visual acuity of the patient is 20/400.
Papillitis secondary to toxoplasmosis, necessitati Papillitis secondary to toxoplasmosis, necessitating immediate systemic therapy.
Acute macular retinitis associated with primary ac Acute macular retinitis associated with primary acquired toxoplasmosis, requiring immediate systemic therapy.
Peripapillary scars secondary to toxoplasmosis. Peripapillary scars secondary to toxoplasmosis.
Perimacular scars secondary to toxoplasmosis. Perimacular scars secondary to toxoplasmosis.
Inactive retinochoroidal scar secondary to toxopla Inactive retinochoroidal scar secondary to toxoplasmosis.

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