What are the GI symptoms of strongyloidiasis?

Updated: Jun 20, 2019
  • Author: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Gastrointestinal symptoms are vague, including epigastric abdominal cramping, indigestion, anorexia, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, chronic diarrhea, constipation, pruritus ani, bloating and, rarely, small bowel obstruction. Strongyloides is an important cause of failure to thrive and cachexia in immunocompetent children.

In classic cases, diarrhea is profuse, watery, and mucoid. Periods of alternation between diarrhea and constipation may occur. Malabsorption of fat and vitamin B-12 has been reported in chronic infections and has been successfully treated by deworming.

Prolonged malabsorption of both fat and protein can lead to a celiac-like syndrome, characterized by steatorrhea, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral edema, such as a syndrome of infantile infection caused by S fulleborni described in western Papua New Guinea. These children have diarrhea that becomes protracted in the first months of life, respiratory distress, failure to thrive, protein-losing enteropathy, and a kwashiorkor-like appearance (with ascites and pleural effusions) due to hypoalbuminemia ("swollen baby" sickness).

In severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated disease, abdominal symptoms are similar to those of chronic infection, but they are more severe. Gut flora invade host tissues either through penetration of infective larvae from bowel lumen or through damaged intestinal epithelium. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species are the most common organisms involved. Bloody stools and/or blood diarrhea may occur along with severe abdominal pains. Massive GI tract bleeding has also been reported. [36]


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