Which exposures increase the risk for pneumococcal infection?

Updated: Aug 27, 2018
  • Author: Claudia Antonieta Nieves Prado, MD; Chief Editor: John L Brusch, MD, FACP  more...
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Predisposing conditions to pneumococcal infection are broad and often overlap; they include the following:

  • Exposure

    • Cigarette smoke

    • Alcohol

    • Exogenous glucocorticosteroid use

    • Cold

    • Stress

    • Prior respiratory infections (including influenza)

    • Daycare attendance

    • Homeless shelters

    • Military recruits

    • Prisons

    • Malnutrition

    • Lack of exposure to breastmilk

    • Celiac disease [52]

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