What is the pathophysiology of Pasteurella multocida infection?

Updated: Nov 07, 2019
  • Author: Sara L Cross, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Local: P multocida infection usually presents as an infection that complicates an animal bite or injury. Complications include rapidly progressive cellulitis, abscesses, tenosynovitis, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. [3] The latter two are particularly common following cat bites because of their small, sharp, penetrative teeth. [4] Non-native septic arthritis can also occur. [5]

Respiratory: P multocida may cause upper respiratory tract infections, including sinusitis, otitis media, mastoiditis, epiglottitis, [6] pharyngitis, and Ludwig angina. [7] In rare cases, P multocida may also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, lung abscess, [8] and empyema, [9] usually in individuals with underlying pulmonary disease.

Cardiovascular: P multocida has been reported to cause native- [10] and prosthetic-valve endocarditis, [11] pericarditis, mycotic aneurysms, [12] vascular graft infections, [13] central venous catheter infections, bacteremia, sepsis, septic shock, [14] and disseminated intravascular coagulation. [15]

Central nervous system: P multocida is an uncommon cause of meningitis, [16] subdural empyema, and brain abscess. [17] P multocida meningitis has been associated with cat licks and bites occurring on the face in persons at the extremes of age. [18]

Gastrointestinal: P multocida rarely causes gastrointestinal problems but has been associated with appendicitis, hepatosplenic abscesses, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. P multocida has been isolated in patients with polymicrobial peritoneal dialysis catheter–associated peritonitis. [19]

Ocular: P multocida periocular abscess, [20] conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers, and endophthalmitis have been reported.

Genitourinary tract: P multocida pyelonephritis, renal abscess, epididymitis, and cervicitis have been reported in rare cases.


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