What is the pathogenesis of iliohypogastric nerve entrapment?

Updated: Oct 15, 2019
  • Author: Minoo Hadjari Hollis, MD; Chief Editor: Thomas M DeBerardino, MD  more...
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The iliohypogastric nerve is rarely injured in isolation. The most common causes of injury are surgical procedures, [15] including transverse lower abdominal incisions, as in hysterectomies, and injuries from procedures such as inguinal herniorrhaphy and appendectomy.

Such injuries are most likely to occur if the incision extends beyond the lateral margin of the inferior rectus abdominis fibers. The damage can result from direct surgical trauma, such as occurs when the surgeon passes a suture around the nerve and incorporates it into the fascial repair, or from postoperative entrapment in scar tissue or neuroma formation.

Sports injuries, such as trauma or muscle tears of the lower abdominal muscles, may also result in injury to the nerve. Injury may also occur during pregnancy, owing to the rapidly expanding abdomen in the third trimester. This is called the idiopathic iliohypogastric syndrome and is rare.

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