What are the diagnostic considerations for meningoencephalitis in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis (mono)?

Updated: Sep 20, 2018
  • Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Meningoencephalitis is a very rare manifestation of EBV infectious mononucleosis. Patients who have unusual neurologic manifestations (eg, scalp tenderness, optic neuritis) usually have other features of EBV infectious mononucleosis, which should suggest the cause of the patient's neurologic symptoms. Neurologic manifestations as the sole indication of EBV infectious mononucleosis are rare. The diagnosis of EBV infectious mononucleosis is a syndromic diagnosis, which is based on the association of fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy in conjunction with the characteristic hematologic abnormalities of EBV infectious mononucleosis. The clinician should look for associated features of infectious mononucleosis to rule in or rule out the possibility in patients with otherwise unexplained mental status changes.

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