What are the general recommendations for the treatment of malaria?

Updated: Apr 26, 2019
  • Author: Thomas E Herchline, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

When making treatment decisions, it is essential to consider the possibility of coinfection with more than 1 species. Reports of P knowlesi infection suggest that coinfection is common. [4] It has also been demonstrated that up to 39% of patients infected with this species may develop severe malaria. In cases of severe P knowlesi malaria, IV therapy with quinine or artesunate is recommended. [5]

The following is a summary of general recommendations for the treatment of malaria:

  • P falciparum malaria - Quinine-based therapy is with quinine (or quinidine) sulfate plus doxycycline or clindamycin or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; alternative therapies are artemether-lumefantrine, atovaquone-proguanil, or mefloquine

  • P falciparum malaria with known chloroquine susceptibility (only a few areas in Central America and the Middle East) - Chloroquine

  • P vivax, P ovale malaria - Chloroquine plus primaquine; however, a 2012 study of Indonesian soldiers demonstrated that primaquine combined with newer nonchloroquine antimalarials killed dormant P vivax parasites and prevented malaria relapse; [30, 31] the combination of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine with primaquine had 98% efficacy against relapse, suggesting that this regimen could become a useful alternative to primaquine plus chloroquine, the clinical utility of which is being threatened by worsening chloroquine resistance

  • P malariae malaria - Chloroquine

  • P knowlesi malaria – Recommendations same as those for P falciparum malaria.


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