Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Leprosy?

Updated: Jun 05, 2020
  • Author: Darvin Scott Smith, MD, MSc, DTM&H; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Antibiotics, Other

These agents have bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against mycobacteria.

Dapsone

Bactericidal and bacteriostatic against mycobacteria; mechanism of action is similar to that of sulfonamides, in which competitive antagonists of PABA prevent formation of folic acid, inhibiting bacterial growth. Part of a 3-drug regimen for treatment of both paucibacillary (6 months) and multibacillary (12 months) leprosy.

Rifampin (Rifadin)

For use in combination with at least 1 other antituberculous drug; inhibits DNA-dependent bacterial but not mammalian RNA polymerase. Most bactericidal drug used against M leprae. Cross-resistance may occur.

Treat for 6-9 mo or until 6 mo have elapsed from conversion to sputum-culture negativity.

Part of a 2-drug regimen for treatment of paucibacillary leprosy; part of a 3-drug regimen for treatment of both paucibacillary (6 months) and multibacillary (12 months) leprosy.

Clofazimine (Lamprene)

Inhibits mycobacterial growth, binds preferentially to mycobacterial DNA. Has antimicrobial properties, but mechanism of action is unknown. Part of a 2-drug regimen for treatment of paucibacillary leprosy; part of a 3-drug regimen for treatment of both paucibacillary (6 months) and multibacillary (12 months) leprosy. No longer commercially available in the United States; available only by obtaining an investigational new drug (IND) permit from the National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program (NHDP).

Minocycline (Minocin, Solodyn)

Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline. Has bacteriostatic activity. Inhibits protein synthesis, and is selectively concentrated in susceptible organisms. It is used in single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy in patients who cannot tolerate clofazimine. Also used as a second-line treatment in combination with clarithromycin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine in patients with rifampin-resistant leprosy.

Ofloxacin (Floxin)

Ofloxacin is a pyridine carboxylic acid derivative with broad-spectrum bactericidal effect. It is used in single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy. Also used as a second-line treatment in combination with clarithromycin, minocycline, and clofazimine in patients with rifampin-resistant leprosy.


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