What are the physical findings of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis?

Updated: Feb 18, 2020
  • Author: Craig G Stark, MD, FACP, FFTM, RCPS(Glasg), FISTM; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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Answer

Examination reveals the following features:

  • Excessive tissue obstructing the nares, septal granulation, and perforation; nose cartilage may be involved, giving rise to external changes known as parrot's beak or camel's nose

  • Possible presence of granulation, erosion, and ulceration of the palate, uvula, lips, pharynx, and larynx, with sparing of the bony structures; hoarseness may be a sign of laryngeal involvement

  • Gingivitis, periodontitis

  • Localized lymphadenopathy

  • Optical and genital mucosal involvement in severe cases

Death occurs from suffocation secondary to airway obstruction, respiratory infection, and aspiration pneumonia. See the following image.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Courtesy of Kenneth F Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Courtesy of Kenneth F. Wagner, MD.

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