Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral are used in the treatment of Influenza?

Updated: Apr 23, 2019
  • Author: Hien H Nguyen, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral

Influenza vaccine is administered each year before flu season. Typically, 3 virus strains (2 influenza A and 1 influenza B), which antigenically represent the influenza strains likely to circulate the next flu season, are included in the formulation each year. Quadrivalent vaccines that included 2 influenza A strains and 2 influenza B strains are available. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) makes the final decision about vaccine strains for influenza vaccines to be sold in the United States, based on year-round surveillance conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). [8]

In April 2007, the FDA approved the first vaccine for H5N1 influenza (ie, avian influenza or bird flu). A second H5N1 influenza vaccine was approved by the FDA in November 2013. It contains the ASO3 adjuvant that allows a smaller amount of antigen to simulate an immune response. Each of these vaccines provides different viral strains; A/Vietnam/1203/2004 and A/Indonesia/05/2005 for the original and adjuvanted vaccines, respectively. H5N1 vaccines are available only to government agencies and for stockpiles.

Influenza virus vaccine trivalent (Afluria, Fluzone, Agriflu, Flucelvax, Fluarix, Fluvirin, Fluzone High-Dose, Fluzone Intradermal)

Influenza vaccine is indicated for active immunization to prevent infection from influenza A and B viruses. The vaccine induces antibodies specific to virus strains contained in the vaccine. The FDA determines influenza vaccine contents annually. Carefully check the indications and age ranges for various brands of influenza vaccine. For example, Fluzone is approved for children as young as 6 months, whereas Fluvirin is approved for children aged 4 years or older. Fluzone High-Dose is specifically formulated to provide a higher antigen content to evoke a stronger immune response in patients ≥65 years.

Influenza virus vaccine trivalent, recombinant (Flublok)

This vaccine is made from recombinant HA proteins that are not derived from egg or chick embryo. The CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends FluBlok for vaccination of adults aged 18 y or older with egg allergy of any severity.

Influenza vaccine is indicated for active immunization to prevent infection from influenza A and B viruses. The vaccine induces antibodies specific to virus strains contained in the vaccine. The US Public Health Service determines influenza vaccine contents annually. Typically, 3 live attenuated virus strains, which antigenically represent the influenza strains likely to circulate the next flu season, are included in the formulation each year.

Influenza virus vaccine quadrivalent (Afluria Quadrivalent, Fluzone Quadrivalent, Fluarix Quadrivalent, Flucelvax Quadrivalent)

Quadrivalent vaccines contain two strains of influenza A and two of influenza B. The vaccine induces antibodies specific to virus strains contained in vaccine. Each year, the US Public Health Service determines which viral strains will be included in the seasonal influenza vaccine that will antigenically represent the viral strains most likely to circulate in the next flu season. It is administered as an IM injection.

Influenza virus vaccine quadrivalent, recombinant (Flublok Quadrivalent)

Contains recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of the 4 strains of influenza virus specified by health authorities for inclusion in the annual seasonal vaccine. Contains no egg proteins, antibiotics, or preservatives.

Influenza virus vaccine trivalent, adjuvanted (Fluad)

Indicated for active immunization against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B contained in the vaccine for adults aged ≥65 y. The vaccine is manufactured using an egg-based process. It is formulated with the adjuvant MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion of squalene oil. Squalene, a naturally occurring substance found in humans, animals, and plants, is highly purified for the vaccine manufacturing process. Adjuvants are incorporated into some vaccine formulations to enhance or direct the immune response of the vaccinated individual.

Influenza virus vaccine (H5N1)

The H5N1 inactivated virus vaccine induces antibodies against viral hemagglutinin, thereby blocking viral attachment to human respiratory tract epithelial cells. The vaccine is estimated to reduce the risk of contracting avian influenza by 45%. This vaccine is indicated for active immunization of adults at increased risk for exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype A/Vietnam/1203/2004. [10]

Influenza virus vaccine (H5N1), adjuvanted

This vaccine contains the AS03 adjuvant. In clinical studies, the adjuvanted vaccine formulation stimulated the required immune response while using a smaller amount of antigen as compared to a formulation without adjuvant. It is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype A/Indonesia/05/2005.


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