What is the pathophysiology of influenza infection?

Updated: Apr 23, 2019
  • Author: Hien H Nguyen, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Influenza viruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae. The core nucleoproteins are used to distinguish the 3 types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses cause most human and all avian influenza infections. The RNA core consists of 8 gene segments surrounded by a coat of 10 (influenza A) or 11 (influenza B) proteins. Immunologically, the most significant surface proteins include hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N).

Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are critical for virulence, and they are major targets for the neutralizing antibodies of acquired immunity to influenza. Hemagglutinin binds to respiratory epithelial cells, allowing cellular infection. Neuraminidase cleaves the bond that holds newly replicated virions to the cell surface, permitting the infection to spread. [13]


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