Which medical conditions are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)?

Updated: Feb 20, 2020
  • Author: Peter A Gearhart, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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The clinical history and presentation of HPV infection vary according to the anatomic area involved. The predilection of certain viral genotypes for infecting certain epidermal sites largely determines areas of involvement. Conditions with which HPV is associated include the following:

  • Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata): These are usually found near moist surfaces (eg, perianal area, vaginal introitus, vagina, labia, and vulva) but may also be found on dry surfaces (eg, penile shaft); they may be smooth and papular or keratotic; they generally are not painful but can be associated with pruritus or bleeding

  • Cervical disease (eg, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LGSIL] or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HGSIL])

  • Anal cancer: About 50% of men who are homosexual and have anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have a history of anorectal warts; however, only 20% of women with SCC and men who are not homosexual have this history

  • Nonanogenital mucosal disease (eg, oral warts, respiratory papillomas, and focal epithelial hyperplasia [Heck disease])

  • Nongenital cutaneous disease (eg, common cutaneous warts [verruca vulgaris], flat warts [verruca plana] and Bowenoid papulosis)

  • Epidermodysplasia verruciformis

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