How is refractory calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity treated?

Updated: Jan 04, 2021
  • Author: B Zane Horowitz, MD, FACMT; Chief Editor: Michael A Miller, MD  more...
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Answer

Treatments that have been used in refractory cases of calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity include the following:

  • Methylene blue [59, 60]
  • Lipid emulsion therapy [61, 62, 63, 64, 65]
  • 4-Aminopyridine and 3.4 diaminopyridine
  • Levosimendan

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