How is renal leak hypercalciuria treated?

Updated: Jun 02, 2021
  • Author: Stephen W Leslie, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Treatment of renal leak hypercalciuria is primarily with thiazides. These medications specifically return calcium from the renal tubule to the serum, generally reduce urinary calcium levels by 30-40%, and eliminate secondary hyperparathyroidism. This hypocalciuric effect of thiazides is diminished or eliminated if dietary sodium is not restricted.

Adverse effects of thiazides include an increase in uric acid and a decrease in urinary citrate; they also can cause hypokalemia. To correct these potential problems, potassium citrate often is administered to patients on long-term thiazide therapy. When used appropriately in renal leak hypercalciuria, thiazides work extremely well and do not appear to attenuate their hypocalciuric effect over time. Chemically, thiazides are sulfonamides and should be used cautiously, if at all, in patients with a known sulfa allergy.

Preferred forms of thiazide therapy include trichlormethiazide (Naqua) 2-4 mg/day and indapamide (Lozol) 1.25-2.5 mg/day. These 2 medications can be administered just once a day and tend to carry fewer adverse effects than do shorter-acting thiazides. Potassium citrate is often added to the thiazide therapy to prevent hypokalemia and to increase urinary citrate levels. The dosage of potassium citrate should be adjusted based on serum potassium and 24-hour urinary citrate levels.

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