What are pharmacologic treatment options for gonorrhea?

Updated: Jun 15, 2021
  • Author: Shahab Qureshi, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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Answer

Treatment for uncomplicated urogenital, anorectal, and pharyngeal gonococcal infection is ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscular (IM) given in a single dose. 

Treatment for coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis with oral doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days) should be administered when chlamydial infection has not been excluded. Ceftriaxone is safe and effective in pregnant women and probably destroys incubating syphilis. Its major drawback is the necessity for IM administration.

A review of the recommendations for antimicrobial treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in 11 East European countries showed ceftriaxone (250-1000 mg IM once) was a first-line antimicrobial in all of them. [57] (However, many of the second-line and alternative treatments were less than ideal, with regionally manufactured antimicrobials predominantly used.)

Data have indicated that the 400-mg oral dose of cefixime does not provide a bactericidal level that is as high or as sustained as that of the 250-mg dose of ceftriaxone and provided a lower cure rate for pharyngeal gonorrhea. The oral cephalosporins cefpodoxime and cefuroxime seem to be inferior and have less desirable pharmacodynamics. [58, 59] In addition, based on findings from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), reported July 2011, from 2009-2010 a decreasing susceptibility to cefixime was found. [60] In response, the CDC issued revised guidelines that do not include oral cephalosporins as first-line treatment. [6]


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