What is the role of lab studies in the workup of fever of unknown origin (FUO)?

Updated: Mar 01, 2018
  • Author: Sandra G Gompf, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

While a workup of FUO should emphasize clinical clues, the following are essential laboratory and imaging tests that are of value in eliciting further diagnostic direction:

  • Complete blood cell (CBC) count with white blood cell (WBC) differential
  • Peripheral blood smear
  • Complete metabolic panel (CMP; provides data on electrolytes, glucose, acid-base, renal, liver, protein status)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • Urinalysis (used to detect glomerulonephritis, occult hematuria; pyuria is insensitive for detecting urinary tract infection in absence of suggestive symptoms, as asymptomatic bacteriuria is common) [12]
  • Blood cultures
  • HIV serology
  • Tuberculosis screening tests – Purified protein derivative (PPD, or Mantoux test); interferon gamma release assay (IGRA)
  • Posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography

Beyond the above essentials in early screening, some would add antinuclear antibody titers, rheumatoid factor, and thyroxine level in diagnosing certain conditions (lupus, RA, thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism). Their diagnostic accuracy is limited in other autoimmune and collagen vascular diseases.


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