Which medications are used in the treatment of enteroviral diseases?

Updated: Mar 01, 2018
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Pleconaril interferes with enterovirus attachment and uncoating by binding to the virus protein capsid. It was once the most promising candidate for the treatment of enterovirus infections because of its oral bioavailability, penetration into the CNS, and efficacy in reducing the duration of symptoms and morbidity in neonatal sepsis, adult meningitis, and perimyocarditis; however, efficacy has not been definitively established. [67, 65] Until 2003, when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) declined its approval, pleconaril had been used on a compassionate basis for treatment of myocarditis and aseptic meningitis in infants. Pleconaril in an intranasal form is currently awaiting FDA approval for the treatment of rhinoviral infections, which although usually self-limited, may persist untreated, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals. [68]

Immunoglobulins have been used therapeutically and prophylactically for enteroviral CNS infections in neonates and immunocompromised hosts, with mixed results. [8] Pre-exposure prophylaxis with immunoglobulins is known to reduce the risk of paralysis in patients with poliovirus infections.


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