How are enteroviral infections transmitted?

Updated: Mar 17, 2021
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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The most common mode of transmission of enteroviruses is via the fecal-oral route. Poor sanitation, low socioeconomic status, and crowded living conditions all facilitate the spread of infection. Direct contact with feces occurs with activities such as diaper changing. Indirect transmission due to poor sanitary conditions may occur via numerous routes, including via contaminated water, food, fingers, fomites, or contaminated ophthalmological instruments (eg, AHC).

Respiratory-oral spread may also be the mode of transmission for coxsackievirus A21 and other coxsackievirus serotypes.

Transmission of enteroviruses has been described among travelers swimming in sewage-contaminated seawater. [60]

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