What is the mortality and morbidity associated with enteroviruses?

Updated: Mar 01, 2018
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

More than 90% of infections caused by the nonpolio enteroviruses are asymptomatic or result in only an undifferentiated febrile illness. [1]

Myopericarditis carries a mortality rate of 0%-4%. Myocarditis carries a higher mortality rate than pericarditis. Additionally, murine model studies have suggested that a deficiency of complement receptors 1 and 2 leads to increased morbidity in coxsackie B3 infections, including myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and fibrosis. [34]

Prior to the vaccine era, the mortality rate in polio epidemics was 5%-7%.

The overall risk of OPV-related disease is estimated to be 1 case per 2.6 million doses of OPV. The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was incorporated into the routine polio vaccination in Europe and Canada in the 1980s. IPV has been used in the United States since 2000; OPV is no longer used in the United States.

Despite the risk of OPV-related paralysis, it is still the preferred vaccine for global polio eradication in developing nations (see Deterrence/Prevention).


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