What is the global prevalence of enteroviruses?

Updated: Mar 17, 2021
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Enteroviruses are distributed worldwide and are influenced by season and climate. Infections occur in summer and early fall in temperate areas, while tropical and semitropical areas bear the brunt all year.

AHC occurs as epidemics in tropical countries during the hot and rainy season. It was first recognized in 1969 in Ghana (Apollo disease) and Indonesia. AHC is also epidemic in India and the Far East.

The worldwide prevalence of poliomyelitis has decreased significantly because of improved economic conditions and availability of vaccines. The last case of wild polio in the Americas occurred in Peru in 1991. In 1994, the World Health Organization declared polio eradicated from the Western Hemisphere. In 2000, 7 cases of poliomyelitis due to a mutated polio strain related to oral polio vaccine were reported from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Polio remains a significant disease in the developing world, and, in 2003, 6 endemic countries were identified: Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Niger, Nigeria, and Pakistan.

In 2008, 1,652 confirmed cases of paralytic polio were reported worldwide. Polio is endemic in 4 countries: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. In addition, 14 other previously polio-free countries (Angola, Burkina Faso, Benin, Central Africa Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Ethiopia, Nepal, Niger, Sudan, Tango) have reported cases in 2008-2009 (114 cases through August 2009) as a result of importations. [34, 35] As of September 2009, 969 cases of polio (including wild polio strains and oral vaccine–derived) had been reported in endemic and nonendemic countries. [36]

In a Korean study of children during an outbreak of aseptic meningitis, echovirus 6 or 30 infection was the most common manifestation. [37]

A wide circulation of non-polio enteroviruses in Europe, mostly affecting young children and leading to neurological symptoms, has been documented. [38] Coxsackievirus A6 was the most common, followed by echovirus 30.

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