What monitoring is indicated following treatment of bacteremia in infective endocarditis (IE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Patients should have blood cultures taken after 3-4 days of treatment to document eradication of the bacteremia. Blood cultures during treatment are essential if persistent fever or other signs develop that suggest failing treatment.

Failure to sterilize the bloodstream, despite adequate serum levels of appropriate antibiotics, should prompt a search for metastatic infection (eg, abscesses, especially splenic, or mycotic aneurysm).

Fever lasting longer than 10 days into therapy with an indicated antibiotic regimen should be of concern and should prompt a search for suppurative complications. Approximately 30% of patients have a return of fever after the initial response. This is usually caused by an intracardiac abscess or metastatic infection. Causes of unresponsive fever include myocardial or septal abscesses, large vegetations that resist sterilization, and metastatic infection. Occasionally, fever in patients with uncomplicated IE may take as long as 3 weeks to abate.

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