What are the treatment considerations and potential pitfalls for infective endocarditis?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Failure to consider the diagnosis, especially in patients with a history of IV drug use and a low-grade fever, is a medicolegal pitfall. Many malpractice suits are caused by a failure to diagnose and a delay in diagnosis accompanied by a poor outcome for the patient.

As a rule for primary care clinics, do not administer antimicrobial agents to febrile patients with heart murmurs without first obtaining at least 2 sets of blood cultures.

The perception that most IE is preventable is wrong. Frequent episodes of transient bacteremia occur with chewing and other activities of daily life. Proving that a failure to give prophylaxis before dental and surgical procedures resulted in IE is difficult. However, this does not prevent legal action alleging IE as a consequence of failing to give the antimicrobial prophylaxis recommended by the AHA.

When a central venous line is needed, not inserting the line when a patient is known to be bacteremic is advisable. If no alternative to placing the line is available, bactericidal antimicrobial agents should be administered to try to prevent the development of IE.

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