Which procedures increase the risk of infective endocarditis (IE), and when should prophylaxis be considered?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Also consider prophylaxis in patients before they undergo procedures [96] that may cause transient bacteremia, such as the following [97] :

  • Any procedure involving manipulation of gingival tissue or the periapical region of teeth, or perforation of the oral mucosa
  • Any procedure involving incision in the respiratory mucosa
  • Procedures on infected skin or musculoskeletal tissue including incision and drainage of an abscess
  • Prophylaxis is no longer routinely recommended for gastrointestinal or genitourinary procedures.

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