What are the AHA treatment guidelines for native valve endocarditis (NVE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

The American Heart Association (AHA) has developed guidelines for treating IE caused by the most frequently encountered microorganisms. [82]

Antibiotic doses are predicated on normal renal function.

Adult NVE caused by penicillin-susceptible S viridans, S bovis, and other streptococci (MIC of penicillin of ≤0.1 mcg/mL) should be treated with one of the following regimens:

  • Administer penicillin G at 12-18 million U/d IV by continuous pump or in 6 equally divided doses for 4 weeks
  • Administer ceftriaxone at 2 g/d IV for 4 weeks. It may be given intramuscularly (IM) for short periods if venous access problems develop; ceftriaxone allows once-a-day outpatient IV therapy for clinically stable patients.
  • Administer penicillin G and gentamicin at 1 mg/kg (based on ideal body weight) every 8 hours for 2 weeks; short-course therapy with ceftriaxone and gentamicin for 2 weeks is a cost-effective regimen and is effective in selected patients; short-course therapy is recommended for those with uncomplicated NVE caused by sensitive S viridans and of less than 3 months’ duration
  • In patients who are allergic to penicillin, use vancomycin at 30 mg/kg/d IV in 2 equally divided doses for 4 weeks; the vancomycin dose should not exceed 2 g/d unless serum levels are monitored and can be adjusted to attain a peak vancomycin level of 30-45 mcg/mL 1 hour after completion of the intravenous infusion of vancomycin

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